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Methodologies

  I try to summarize the main scientific goal of the nova-days hydrology and the sustainable development targets. I would formulate the goal as the following: to understand the function of hydrosphere constituent parts, quantitative and qualitative, biological and bio-chemical, with specific time and space resolution (from a particle to the globe, from its instant life to the geological epoch). The sustainable development means development in harmony with Mother Nature performing our function as the harmony keepers along with the rest of biota’s functions at all society levels: from individual to national, global, and entire bio-society, using all our knowledge, love, and technology. Can you already set your own objectives and targets?
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The Harmonized Frequencies Analysis™ (HFA): the improved Separated Flux AnalysisTM (updates of June 24, 2014)

   

The analysis is based on the Law of Structural Stability of Systems discovered by Eduard Soroko (1984) , manifestation of which in hydrosphere is represented by the universality and scale-invariance of the Structural Harmony chart of Hydrosphere© (under Hydrosphere here it is understood the dynamic system of the global water). The semi-manual model of the analysis represents the assessment of functional relationships between variables of the system or any its part revealing the structural and functional harmony of it, pointing at key variables or their components, controlling straight and feedback relations with air temperature during the examined period.

The Structural Harmony Chart (SHC) has two forms for each time-space location: the local one, which depends on the resonance between temperature and precipitation, and the universal form, in which Ki = -2.618*Bi+2 (Bi is the base component of i-variable).

Shortly, the steps of the analysis given in the local modification of the model can be described as following (check with the Fletcher’s Creek model provided):

Part 1

  • Prepare all available for your subject (station, watershed or any territory of your interest) meteorological, hydro-metrical, -logical, -geological, and -physical data with the same time resolution (hour, day, month, year, etc.). Do not ignore seasonal measurements of snow, permafrosting or evaporation, and multiple data (several stations, sub-watersheds, etc.). You can use totalized and original data.
  • Separate base components of all variables using the SimpleBase Delineation ModelTM (assess the precipitation traces prior it separation) and estimate B, I and S.

Part 2(a)

  • Create the Structural Harmony chart for all variables B, I, S = f(Ki) placing their base components on the base curve B = f(Ki) characterized by the following three points:
    • The point of zero tension Ki = -0.62, B = 1;
    • The equilibrium tension point Ki = 1, B = 0.38;
    • The tension releasing point, in which Ki is estimated via synchronization of the precipitation inter dynamic with the temperature base one (Np = Nt) (this point is estimated in the daily scale only);
  • The criterion for the finished SHC is the least square for the base curve Rb2 => 0.999 (see the Elasticity chart in the model provided)

Part 2(b)

  • Create the universal form of the SHC, for which the structural divider of each variable is estimated using the following expression:

Part 3

  • Select several “not-related” variables for the cross-correlation and do it separately for each scale (do not correlate totals and their components as well!); range averages and absolute averages of correlation coefficients for  each variable in descending order: the top items are the key pair for the examined spacetime in each scale.

 

   

For more information or training at your own place using available on-line data, call 613-413-7153 or e-mail: rimma@hydrology.ca

 
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The Separated Flow Approach (SFA)

   

The method is based on ‘the physical concept of chemical composition' of flow: the chemical composition of flow is conditioned by its pathway.

The method has five steps:

  1. separation of flow into base, inter and storm components: permanent groundwater discharge, temporal groundwater discharge and overland flow, respectively
  2. association of each available sample of a contaminant with the total flow as the certain combination of components
  3. establishing of the pattern relationships between discharge and the contaminant concentration for each flow component (see Fletcher's Creek project )
  4. the model creation of daily assessment of the contaminant for each flow component based on obtained relationships and, finally,
  5. estimation of daily total flow concentrations and comparing them with the initial monitored data

The method can be applied to any substance, chemical or physical parameter of the total flow.

pdf document icon Daily Chloride and Mercury contamination of Lake Ontario by Etobicoke Creek is the application of the method. The assessment of Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, and Lead can be found here .

 
publication pointer   Water balance
   

The water balance method is the main conceptual method in hydrology. To organize hydrometeorological monitoring network, create daily, monthly or yearly model of water cycle or predict water table behavior under climate change – these are different applications of water balance.
Water balance equation has different appearance under different conditions and time and scale resolution. To see entire range of variations it is necessary to compare the long-term year water balance of the globe (the shortest one) with the random small surface plot (lake, wetland, watershed, county, city, field, etc.) balance at the particular time (the longest one).
The long-term year water balance equation for the entire globe is very simple:

E = P

Where E denotes the depth of total evapotranspiration (mm), P – precipitation (mm).There is the runoff component adds for oceans and continents:

E = P + R           for oceans
    E = P – R          for continents

Now, if yearly water balances are the matter of investigation, the groundwater (dG) and soil moisture (dS) or water storage (dW) change should be considered:

For oceans:                E = P + R + dW
       For continents:          E = P – R + dS + dG

The same equations are used for watershed under assumption that there is no inter-watershed or inter-layer exchange of ground and underground components.
Long-term year application of water balance for Etobicoke Creek is presented in Water Resources Inventory Model (WRIM) Project.
The longest water balance equation is considered in case of short period of time (month, day, and hour) for random area (county, field, city, etc.). Generally, it can be presented as the following:

E = P - I + dSn + Ri – Ro + Si + So + dS + Gi + Go + dG + dW

Where

E   - total evapotranspiration from examined area during examined interval
P   - total precipitation
I   - dew/interception of precipitation by canopies, grass or buildings
dSn   - changing of water storage in snow pack
Ri   - inflow runoff
Ro   - outflow runoff
Si   - water input to unsaturated layer
So   - water output from unsaturated layer
dS   - changing of water storage in unsaturated layer
Gi   - water input to saturated layer
Go   - water output from saturated layer
dG   - changing of water storage in saturated layer
dW   - changing of water storage in surface water formations during examined period: rivers, lakes, ponds, reservoirs, wetlands, which are located at the examined area.

The SimpleBase Delineation Model gives accurate amount of some of these elements.

pdf document iconEquilibrium Water Balance Model is one of the watershed applications.

This equation becomes more complicate under development condition: water supply and waste, transmissions, landfills, etc. In case of watershed is the examined area it becomes a basis for watershed approach to ISO 14000 (see WRIM project again ).

 
publication pointer   Non-standart (the watershed) approach to ISO 14000
   

pdf document icon The watershed approach to ISO 14000 is formulated as the following: Identify, insure and improve the anthropogenic impact on a watershed.

O n-line training for the International Environmental Standard ISO 14000!

pdf document iconWater Resources Inventory Model (WRIM) application to Etobicoke Creek and Daily assessment of flow contamination perform an examples of the identification and monitoring of possible improving of the environmental impact.

 
publication pointer   Usable storage coefficient method for water resources assessment
   

The method was developed to estimate water resources parameters (specific flow, water level amplitude) for an unknown river flowing out of a lake using minimal geo-morphological information like type of under laying grounds and rocks, origin and size of the lake and its watershed.

pdf document icon The original method description is given in the publication Global regularity of the river runoff adjustment by lakes (1995).

pdf document icon Globosity of the method was approved by the application for the Baltic Sea and tiny Beverly Swamp.

 
publication pointer   Flow separation
   

Existing methods:

  • individual presentation of the storm (surface), inter- and baseflow components using any conceptual model (needs additional resources: human, software, climate and geo-morphologic dataset)
  • delineation of groundwater from the total stream flow using HYSEP, BFLOW, PART, UKIH (do not separate permanent and temporary groundwater flows)

pdf document icon SimpleBase Delineation Model TM delineates the baseflow and separates the storm flow from interflow.

There is the following linear function for baseflow separation:

Qb = Qo + T*dQb

Where Qb denotes the daily baseflow for day T after a flood event beginning, Qo is the pre-flood discharge. The criterion for unknown dQb is the highest number of separated fluxes. The criterion based on the genetic condition: baseflow is the only flow component that makes the permanent stream permanent. The other key condition is the definition of the flux: any response of the basin as an increase of discharge followed by decrease or unchanged condition.

To separate the surface component from the inter one the similar linear function is used, but dQi derives from dQb:

dQi = dQb*2^(Kmax + 0.618), where

Kmax is the upper limit of the river's dynamic buffer; 0.618 – Phi, the Golden Section

There are four main applications for this method in my practice:

  1. for BFI, IFI, and SFI estimation
  2. as a part of the Separated Flow Approach
  3. for Equilibrium Water Balance model
  4. for the parametrical assessment of the impact on water regime
     
publication pointer   Snow Accumulation and Melting (SAM)
    This is an empirical model, the specific key feature of which is snow density, its values for the new, aging and ripe snow. To receive local equations for new and aging snow you can do your own snow measurements. To learn how to do it using the non-standard tool, click here.
   

 

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